Pakistan is an agricultural country. About 70% of the inhabitants is openly or circuitously connected with agriculture. Pakistan has fertile soil and finest irrigation method in the world, therefore, large amount of crops are cultivated here. There are two types of crops.
(1) Food Crops. (2) Cash Crops.
FOOD CROPS. Food crops are those crops, which are refined for the purpose of providing food for the people. The reason of such farming is only to provide food to people so that they can survive.
CASH CROPS. Pakistan also grows non-food products. Such crops are called cash crops. These kinds of crops are not devoted by people but they are used in diverse industries to produce things, for example, cotton is used for making cotton and textile, pulp is used to make paper and board, Such crops are also exported to other countries to get foreign exchange.
RABI & KHARIF CROPS. The crops are sown and cultivated according to their climatic wants. Some crops need a lot of water and extremely fertile land, whereas some crops need very little water and can be cultivated in minor fertile land. Temperature also plays a main position in the cultivation of crops. The details of some major crops cultivated in Pakistan are as under :-
WHEAT. Wheat is the mainly important crop in Pakistan, as it is a major food crop in Pakistan. It is a Rabi crop, therefore, it is sown in October, November and it is harvested in Summer. Wheat requires less water, fertile land and heat at the end of the season to grown.
GRAM. Gram is also a rabi and food crop like wheat. It is not only a food foundation for people but it is also a feed for animals. Gram needs less water and can be cultivated on less fertile land as compared to wheat.
OIL-SEEDS. Another major rabi crop is oil seeds, but they go to cash crop family. They are grown so that they can be sold to cooking oil manufacturing factories. Cooking oil is significant in our life as all meals are cooked in oil. This crop mainly consists of soya bean, sunflower, sesame seeds and peanuts.
RICE. Rice is a kharif crop and it is also a food crop, rice is cultivated in the beginning of summer and harvested after the rainy season before winter. It requires fertile land and prosperity of water. Rice requires more water than any other crop of kharif or rabi.
COTTON. Cotton is a kharif crop as well as cash crop. It is cultivated to make thread and fabric, therefore, it is sold to textile business. It is also called silver fiber. Pakistan exports cotton all over the world.
SUGAR CANE. Sugar cane is also a cash crop. It is cultivated in the beginning of summer and cut down in the beginning of winter, therefore, it is a kharif crop. Sugar in Pakistan is made from sugar cane unlike around the world where it is made from sugar beet. Sugar cane is sold to sugar mills and the farmer gets good money for growing sugar cane; therefore, it is a cash crop.
Tobacco is a kharif crop and it is a major cash crop all over the world. It requires fertile land and plenty of water. Tobacco is used to make cigarettes which are bad for your health and causes cancer. Even then people all over the world use it. That’s why it is a cash earning crop all over the world.