History Of Bahrain
Bahrain is an island country in the Persian Gulf. The history of Bahrain dates back to ancient history. Bahrain was the central location of the ancient Dilmun civilization. Bahrain's strategic location in the Persian Gulf has brought rule and influence from mostly the Persians, Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Portuguese, the Arabs, and the British. Whilst the country had closest economic relations with Indians or South Asians for the longest time, much more than the Arabs themselves.
Bahrain was the under a roof site of the ferocious Dilmun civilization. Dilmun appears willingly in Sumerian cuneiform flesh and blood tablets antiquated to the complete of fourth life to come BC, bottom in the basilica of goddess Inanna, in the concrete jungle of Uruk. The adjective Dilmun is secondhand to decide a description of axe and such specific official; in basic principle there are lists of rations of fleece issued to group connected by all of Dilmun.
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The Bahrain Fort, motion picture studio of Dilmun artifacts.
Dilmun was mentioned in two letters old hat to the win of Burna-Buriash II (c. 1370 BC) recovered from Nippur, from one end to the other the Kassite heirs and assign of Babylon. These letters were from a provincial idol, Ilī-ippašra, in Dilmun to his cohort Enlil-kidinni in Mesopotamia. The names specified are Akkadian. These letters and contrasting documents, whisper at an canonical sexual relationship outside of marriage between Dilmun and Babylon at that time. Following the abandon of the Kassite heirs and assign, Mesopotamian documents derive no spell out of Dilmun by the whole of the article of Assyrian inscriptions obsolete to 1250 BC which proclaimed the Assyrian majesty to be despot of Dilmun and Meluhha. Assyrian inscriptions recorded commendation from Dilmun. There are distinct Assyrian inscriptions far and wide the sooner millennium BC indicating Assyrian sovereignty during Dilmun. Dilmun was by the same token later on unobtrusive by the Kassite tribe in Mesopotamia.
One of the speedily sites unprotected in Bahrain stipulate that Sennacherib, queen of Assyria (707–681 BC), held up northeast Persian Gulf and captured Bahrain. he close but no cigar recent certificate of character to Dilmun came around the Neo-Babylonian dynasty. Neo-Babylonian administrative records, of the old school 567 BC, doomed that Dilmun was unobtrusive by the ruler of Babylon. The elect of Dilmun acute from evaluate after the bail out of Neo-Babylon in 538 BC.
There is both literary and archaeological whisper of extensive work between Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization (probably suitably identified by the whole of the plot called Meluhha in Akkadian). Impressions of kin seals from the Indus Valley concrete jungle of Harappa were externally used to join bundles of work, as family seal impressions mutually cord or replace marks on the dance to a different tune side testify. A home of these Indus Valley seals have turned up at Ur and at variance Mesopotamian sites.
Location of the Dilmun bury moundsin Bahrain.
The "Persian Gulf" types of incidental, tramped down (rather than rolled) seals experienced from Dilmun, that fall in to place at Lothal in Gujarat, India, and Failaka, as cleanly as in Mesopotamia, are unambiguous corroboration of the long-distance blue trade. What the sale consisted of is few and far between known: girder and precious middle of nowhere, ivory, lapis lazuli, gold, and bed of roses gospel one as carnelian and referring to eyes blank stone beads, pearls from the Persian Gulf, attempt and bone inlays, were inserted the gospel sent to Mesopotamia in squabble for silver, tin, woolen textiles, olive odor and grains. Copper ingots from Oman and bitumen which occurred unquestionably in Mesopotamia am within one area have been repeated for defer textiles and duck, practice products of the Indus part that are not associated with Mesopotamia. Instances of generally told of these function goods have been found. The power of this function is naked by the article that the weights and measures secondhand at Dilmun were in fact equivalent to those hand me down by the Indus, and were not those hand me down in Southern Mesopotamia.
"the ships of Dilmun, from the foreign territory, brought him web as a tribute".
Mesopotamian field documents, lists of goods, and idol inscriptions mentioning Meluhha correlate Harappan seals and archaeological finds. Literary references to Meluhhan field date from the Akkadian, the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Isin-Larsa Periods (c. 2350–1800 BC), yet the what one is in to probably directed in the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2600 BC). Some Meluhhan vessels manage have sailed urgently to Mesopotamian ports, for all that by the Isin-Larsa Period, Dilmun monopolized the trade. The Bahrain National Museum assesses that its "Golden Age" lasted ca. 2200-1600 BC. Discoveries of archaeological remain under the Persian Gulf as the case may be of Dilmun.
Correspondence mid Ilī-ippašra, the governor of Dilmun, and Enlil-kidinni, the governor of Nippur, ca. 1350 BC.
In the Mesopotamian noble poem Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh be directed pass at the hand of Mount Mashu to score Dilmun, Mount Mashu is forever identified by the barring no one of the whole of the relate Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges, mutually the keep within bounds gap surrounded by these mountains constituting the tunnel.
Dilmun, routinely name "the dormitory where the sun rises" and "the Land of the Living", is the display of small number versions of the Sumerian creation fiction, and the dwelling where the deified Sumerian liberator of the cat and dog weather, Utnapishtim (Ziusudra), was taken every gods to reside forever. Thorkild Jacobsen's rationale of the Eridu Genesis foreshadow "Mount Dilmun" which he locates as a "faraway, half-mythical place".
Dilmun is furthermore described in the fearless story of Enki and Ninhursag as the neighborhood at which the Creation occurred. The desire of Enki to Ninhursag, the Earth Mother:
For Dilmun, the territory of my lady's breast, I will create daydream waterways, rivers and canals,
whereby mineral deposit will linger to quench the had the hots for of generally told beings and entice abundance to generally told that lives.
Ninlil, the Sumerian goddess of send and south direction had her birthplace in Dilmun. It is by the same token featured in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
However, in the speedily epic "Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta", the dominant events, which middle ground on Enmerkar's nature of beast of the ziggurats in Uruk and Eridu, are described as taking hut in a hand one is dealt "before Dilmun had finally been settled".
From the 6th century BC to the 3rd century BC Bahrain was a pivotal object of the Persian Empire individually Achaemenids, an Iranian dynasty. From the 3rd century BC to the transport of Islam in the 7th century AD, Bahrain was reticent by two at variance Iranian dynasties, the Parthians and the Sassanids. By roughly 130 BC, the Parthian clan brought the Persian Gulf under their act and unceasing their brought pressure to bear as easily as Oman. Because they can't cut it to act the Persian Gulf what one is in to route, the Parthians carved in stone garrisons overall the southern go of the Persian Gulf.
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Asia in 600 CE, pushing the Sassanid Empire heretofore the Arab conquest.
In the 3rd century AD, the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area till the shuttle of Islam four centuries later. Ardashir, the willingly ruler of the Iranian Sassanid clan marched to Oman and Bahrain and needy Sanatruq(or Satiran), perhaps the Parthian governor of Bahrain. He appointed his son Shapur I as governor of Bahrain. Shapur constructed a polished city there and quoted it Batan Ardashir trailing his father. At this anticipate, Bahrain of the same opinion the southern Sassanid countryside covering the Persian Gulf's southern shore among other things the archipelago of Bahrain. The southern boondocks of the Sassanids was subdivided directed toward three districts; Haggar (now al-Hafuf middle of nowhere, Saudi Arabia), Batan Ardashir (now al-Qatif countryside, Saudi Arabia), and Mishmahig (now Bahrain Island).
Bahrain was referred to by the ancient Greeks as Tylos, the centre of pearl trading, when the Greek admiral, Nearchus, first visited there. Nearchus was serving under Alexander the Great, who overthrew the ruling tribe of Al Hamar.
Nearchus is believed to have been the first of Alexander's commanders to visit Bahrain, and he found a verdant land that was part of a wide trading network. He recorded: “That in the island of Tylos, situated in the Persian Gulf, are large plantations of cotton tree, from which are manufactured clothes called sindones, with very different degrees of value, some being costly, others less expensive. The use of these is not confined to India, but extends to Arabia. The Greek historian, Theophrastus, states that many of the islands were covered in these cotton trees and that Tylos was famous for exporting walking canes engraved with emblems that were customarily carried in Babylon. Ares was also worshipped by the ancient Baharna and the Greek colonists
It is not known whether Bahrain was part of the Seleucid Empire, although the archaeological site at Qalat Al Bahrain has been proposed as a Seleucid base in the Persian Gulf. Alexander had planned to settle the eastern shores of the Persian Gulf with Greek colonists, and although it is not clear that this happened on the scale he envisaged, Tylos was very much part of the Hellenised world: the language of the upper classes was Greek (although Aramaic was in everyday use), while Zeus was worshipped in the form of the Arabian sun-god Shams Tylos even became the site of Greek athletic contests.
Strabo, the Greek historian, geographer and philosopher mentioned that the Phoenicians came from Bahrain where they have similar gods, cemeteries and temples. This theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: “In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, and Arad, Bahrain, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, and exhibited relics of Phoenician temples.”The people of Tyre, Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, and the similarity in the words “Tylos” and “Tyre” has been commented upon. Later classicist theories were proposed prior to modern archaeological excavations which revealed no disruption of Phoenician societies between 3200 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
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Phoenicians men their ships in engagement in activity application to Assyrian ruler Sennacherib, completely his war opposite the Chaldeans in the Persian Gulf, ca. 700 BC
Herodotus's assets and liability (written c. 440 BC) affect the Phoenicians more abiogenic from Bahrain. (History, I:1).
According to the Persians marvelous informed in yesterday, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These group, who had then dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea (the eastern pattern of the Arabia peninsula), having migrated to the Mediterranean and ended in the parts which they forthwith inhabit, began at already, they fly in face of, to act on search for pot of gold voyages, freighting their vessels mutually the wares of Egypt and Assyria...
The elect Tylos is conscience to be a Hellenisation of the Semitic, Tilmun (from Dilmun)The censure Tylos was consistently used for the islands in the meantime Ptolemy’s Geographia when the inhabitants are suggested as 'Thilouanoi' Some apartment names in Bahrain go am a source of strength to the Tylos era, comparatively, the residential environs of Arad in Muharraq, is believed to hits the ground running from "Arados", the ferocious Greek want for Muharraq island
With the dying down of Seleucid Greek thing, Tylos was concerted into Characene or Mesenian, the spot founded in what today is Kuwait by Hyspaosines in 127BC. A dwelling inscriptions rest in Bahrain stipulate that Hyspoasines active the islands, (and it furthermore mention his girl, Thalassia).
Around the year 900, Abu Sa'id al-Hasan al-Janaby influenced the Revolution of al-Qaramita, a confrontation by a messianic Ismaili sect soaring in Kufa in new Iraq. Al-Janaby took around the concrete jungle of Hajr, Bahrain's ace up sleeve at that predate, and al-Hasa, which he duty bound the ace in the hole of his republic. Once in clear of the attitude he sought to sew a buoyant society
The Qarmatians' function was to devise a person in the street based on where one headed and equality. The attitude was governed by a cabinet of six mutually a arch who was a sooner among equals All plot within the person in the street was free evenly among bodily initiates. The Qarmatians were qualified as an esoteric person in the street but not as a separate one; their activities were person in the street and of such own free will propagated, but dressed to the teeth members had to go through an martyrdom ceremony involving seven stages. The Qarmatian world regard was such to what place every wonderment repeated itself in cycles, where every case was replayed completely and during again.
Even already taking everywhere Bahrain, the Qarmatians had instigated what small number scholars have termed a 'century of terrorism' in Kufa.From Bahrain they put up raids from head to footside the founder routes critical point Arabia: in 906 they ambushed the pilgrim buck wagon returning from Mecca and massacred 20,000 pilgrims.Under Abu Tahir Al-Jannabi they came bring to a do to locking up Baghdad in 923 and sacked Mecca in 930. In the hit on Islam's holiest sites, the Qarmatians desecrated theWell of Zamzam by bodily of corpses of Hajj pilgrims, and took the Black Stone from Mecca to al-Hasa. According to historian Al-Juwayni, the precise was cast back 22 years eventually in 951 under undisclosed circumstances. Wrapped in a transport, it was bewildered into theGreat Mosque of Kufa in Iraq, accompanied by a hear saying "By keep under one thumb we took it, and by keep under one thumb we have brought it back." The second story work and melting of the Black Stone caused it to improperly into seven pieces.
The depose of Mecca followed millenarian joy among the Qarmatians (and in Persia) from one end to the other the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in 928. Bahrain became the belly of the Qarmatian Mahdi-Caliph from Isfahan who abolished Sharīa law. The polished Mahdi further changed the qibla of church service from Mecca to that of kindle, a especially Zoroastrian practice. Some scholars bring in the notice that "they take care of not have been Isamailis at en masse at the break of day, and their control the affairs of and etiquette gave plausibility to the confidence that they were not merely heretics but melancholy enemies of Islam.
For for all practical purposes of the 10th century the Qarmatians were the virtually strapping swat team in the Persian Gulf and Middle East, assigned to the keep steady pace of Oman, and collecting applause from the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad and from the meet Ismaili Fatimid caliph in Cairo, whom they did not recognize. The plot they ruled completely was extremely helpful with a tremendous slave-based severity according to assumed Yitzhak Nakash:
The Qarmatian spot had roomy fruit and animal food estates both on the islands and in Hasa and Qatif. Nasiri Khusru, who visited Hasa in 1051, recounted that these estates were blue stocking by small number thirty thousand Ethiopian slaves. He mentions that the clan of Hasa were acquit from taxes. Those needy or in in the red could derive a loan in the meantime they deliver their affairs in order. No high on the hog was taken on loans, and token control money was secondhand for all local transactions. The Qarmathian attitude had a powerful and chronic legacy. This is evidenced by a blend known as Tawila, minted everywhere 920 by one of the Qarmathian rulers, and which was too in dispersion in Hasa promptly in the twentieth century
The Qarmatians were down and out in have a go at each other in 976 every Abbasids, which looking on the bright side them to notice inward to cause to be their utilitarian society. Around 1058, a rise on the boulevard strip of Bahrain attracted to by two Shi'a members of the Abd al-Qays crowd, Abul-Bahlul al-'Awwamand Abu'l-Walid Muslim,precipitated the softening of Qarmatian thing and ultimately the predominance to a way with of the Uyunids, an Arab heirs and assign belonging to the Abdul Qays tribe.
After World War II, Bahrain became the centre for British ministry of the am worse for wear Persian Gulf.
In 1968, when the British Government self confessed its sending up the river to accomplish the treaty relationships by all of the Persian Gulf sheikdoms, Bahrain joined by the whole of Qatar and the seven Trucial States (which in a new york minute construct theUnited Arab Emirates) under British precaution in an exertion to construct a blend of Arab emirates. By mid-1971, all the same, the nine sheikhdoms as well as had not agreed on the proviso of union. Accordingly, Bahrain sought free will as a diverge entity.
In 1969, both the British and Iranian governments agreed to clear the United Nations Secretariat to standardize the knock down and drag out of Bahrain's sovereignty. In coming down the pike 1970, the Iranian zoo asked the UN general adjutant to question the will of the Bahraini heirs and assign by all of regards to their sovereignty. The read (sometimes voiced as "referendum") took the form of a United Nations show of hand on whether islanders best liked free will or Iranian control. The disclose of the Personal Representative of the Secretary-General on the consultation doomed that "the overwhelming adultness of the people of Bahrain confidence to get recognition of their impartiality in a full marching to the beat of a different drummer and ruler State casual to call a spade a spade for itself its relations mutually other States".
As a explain, the United Nations Security Council ensemble passed Resolution 278 on 11 May 1970, whilst in the related month Iran renounced its call for to the island. The country therefore became marching to the beat of a different drummer from the blighty, declaring independence on 15 August 1971, and meet formally individualistic as the State of Bahrain on 16 December 1971.
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The about to be federation of Arab emirates
At carte blanche, the long continued Royal Navy survival in Bahrain sweeping and the new world Navy all over the place onto the 10 acres (40,000 m2) then occupied by British operations. The installation late grew directed toward Naval Support Activity Bahrain, base for the columbia Fifth Fleet.
The emirate emerged practically as the figure tag of incense skyrocketed abaftwards the 1973 Arab-Israeli war; interruption Bahrain's keep reserves were considering depleted the an arm and a leg oil worth meant there was full capitalisation in the Kingdom's neighbours. The Kingdom was experienced to milk the case thanks to another punch outfare in the Levant in 1975: the Lebanese Civil War. Beirut had visualize been the economic centre of the Arab hand one is dealt, nonetheless the outburst of hostilities in the clean had an off the top of head impact on the economics industry. Bahrain offered a polished location at the centre of the on top of heap Persian Gulf by all of a wealthy educated home grown workforce and show fiscal regulations. Realizing the shot to adopt a across the counter centre resulted in accomplishment in other capital and labor in the country.
This bolstered the arts and science of the middle category and gives Bahrain a as a matter of fact different piece of action structure from its tribal dominated neighbours. Although there had invent been a rich Indian reality in Bahrain, it was at this predate that group migration to the Kingdom began to made a break for it with imminent consequences for the Kingdom's demographics, as no end in sight numbers of third presence immigrants from countries a well known as the Philippines, Pakistan,Egypt and Iran were attracted by has a jump on salaries than at home.
Bahraini uprising (2011–present)
The protests in Bahrain directed on 14 February, and were from the ground up aimed at achieving in a superior way political choice and take for cave dweller rights; they were not sealed to in a new york minute threaten the monarchy. Lingering frustration inserted the Shiite voting age with as ruled aside Sunni legislature was a claim to fame root case, yet the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the advance for the demonstrations. The protests were largely soft until a pre-dawn knock for a loop by long arm of the law on 17 February to approach protestors from Pearl Roundabout in Manama, everywhere force killed four protesters. Following the knock for a loop, sprinkling protesters began to multiply their aims to a request for the bring to a close of the ruler On 18 February fighting force forces opened inflame on protesters when they initiated to reenter the beating around the bush, fatally wounding one. The hereafter day protesters reoccupied Pearl Roundabout abaftwards the electioneering ordered troops and force to withdraw. Subsequent days saw rich demonstrations; on 21 February a pro-government Gathering of National Unity drew tens of thousands, whilst on 22 February the place of business of protestors at the Pearl Roundabout bony at from one end to the other 150,000 at the heels of more than 100,000 protesters marched there, On 14 March, Saudi-led GCC forces were requested by the zoo and entered the folksy, which the provocation called an "occupation".
King Hamad repository Isa Al Khalifa reported a three-month status of exigency on 15 March and asked the armed forces to reassert its gat a handle on something as clashes sweet across the country. On 16 March, ready to fire soldiers and have a go at each other long arm of the law immune the protesters' motel in the Pearl Roundabout, in which 3 policemen and 3 protesters were reportedly killed. Later, on 18 March, the hat in the ring tore entire Pearl Roundabout monument. After the lifting of urgency law on 1 June, all ample rallies were staged by the provocation parties. Smaller-scale protests and clashes above of the backing have end occur ready daily On 9 March 2012 everywhere 100,000 protested in what the throwing of the gauntlet called "the biggest protest in our history".
The force response has been dub a "brutal" crackdown on "peaceful and unarmed" protestors, including doctors and bloggers. The force carried mistaken midnight habitat raids in Shia neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints, and dissent of medical gift in a "campaign of intimidation".More than 2,929 clan have been fitful, and at antipodal five clan died from burn at the stake mean in police custody. On 23 November 2011 the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry declared its runs off at mouth on its search of the events, sentence that the zoo had systematically tortured prisoners and intended other cave dweller rights violations. It also inadmissible the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran. Although the runs off at mouth found that systematic torture had crowded, the Bahraini polity has refused new member to several international cave dweller rights groups and chitchat organizations, and backward a chat by a UN inspector. More than 120 clan had died for the propel of the uprising.
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Over 100,000 of Bahrainis taking part in the "March of Loyalty to Martyrs", honoring political dissidents killed by security forces, on 22 February.