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Public Health is the science and art of public utilisation of medical knowledge or the protection and maintenance of the outbreak of disease and curing disease through organised public efforts for:

a)     The control of community disease.

b)     Sanitation and hygiene of the environment.

c)   The organization of medical and nursing services for the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases in individual.

d)     The education of the citizens in the principle of the personal hygiene and preventive medicine.

e)   The development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health of the individual by community efforts and organization of medical facilities.

           It is therefore, primarily a field of social service. It is the application of medical science and hygienic to a comprehensive programmes of community welfare.

Causes of Diseases in Pakistan

       The health of the people has become a matter of great importance in every developing country. In Pakistan, also  the problem of public health has become important.

         Public health in general and the health of each individual in particular, occupies a very important place in the economical and social development of our country. Only a healthy person can perform his job well and efficiently. That is why better health standards are necessary for preventing diseases and economical backwardness and poverty.

        Unfortunately, in Pakistan the standard of public health is very low. It's causes are following:


Our country is very poor country and the standard of living of the masses is very low. The poverty of the people is the main reason they cannot avail all of the health promoting facilities and amenities of the modern life, such as sports and games, hiking rowing, swimming and other kind of exercises, good and healthy food and clean and hygiene houses and environment. On the contrary, they suffer from various kinds of diseases and ailments and do not posses enough income for proper medical treatment and drugs.

Lack of Education and Ignorance

           Lack of Education and Ignorance are also the main causes of the disease in our country. The masses are ignorant of the rules of health and hygienes, of cleanliness and sanitation. They do not try to keep their houses and localities clean in which they live.

Adulteration of Foods

         Adulteration of Foods and eatables is one of the general causes of disease and ill-health. It is most unfortunate that pure food, such as flour, milk, wheat, fresh vegetables and fruits, etc are vanishing from our markets. Even such eatables as chillies and spices are being adulterated with injuious materials or with poor quality stuff.

Lack of Good and Pure Drinking Water

           There are vast areas in Pakistan where pure and fresh water is not easily available. It is partly due to geographical and climatic reasons but also due to human negligence. Lack of drinking water is also a cause of ill-health and disease.

Dearth of Doctors

           Great Dearth of doctors, nurses, and shortage of hospitals and other medical facilities in our country is also a cause of bad health. There is one nurse for 6,000 patients in our country, while there is one nurse for 300 in Great Britain. There is one hospital bed for 1,700 patients. Inadequate nutrition, insanitary conditions, insufficient medical facilities are some of the causes of the prevalence of ill-health epidemics and a high rate of inequality.


About the author


I am Muhammad Haneef Khan I am Administration Officer in Pakistan Public School & College, K.T.S, Haripur.

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